9 Best Coding Languages For App Development in 2023

We have compiled a list of the 9 best coding languages for app development in 2023. While programming languages for mobile app development abound – over 6900 languages – your app specifications usually determine the programming language type to use.

For instance, when prioritizing app security, using Python might be best. Likewise, JavaScript and Kotlin are used to create Android apps, while Swift and Objective C are used for iOS apps.

The point is no programming language ticks all boxes. Every smartphone app development tool has strengths and weaknesses that fit into different use cases. However, some are more versatile and widely used, while others specialize in specific uses.

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What Programming Language Fits Which Instance?

Programming languages are instructions that machines can interpret. Thus, the existence of different machines, environments, and functions brings the need for many languages. However, most languages can work across other systems.

Programming Languages For Native Apps

Native apps work within the framework of their operating system. Currently, Android and iOS are the most popular operating systems.

While Swift is tailor-made for iOS, Java, and Kotlin are used for Android development.

Cross-Platform Development

Many hybrid apps can work across different operating systems and have native and web capabilities. Popular programming language choices include JavaScript, CSS, and HTML.

Website App Development

These are web browsers built within the framework of an app. PHP, JavaScript, HTML, and Ruby on Rails are popular programming language picks.

Advanced Applications

The fast-changing technology dynamics have brought the need for high-performance apps. Software built with these languages can incorporate Machine language, cybersecurity, or AI features. Top picks include Python, Lisp, SQL, etc.

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9 Best Coding Languages For App Development in 2023

best programming languages for app development

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1. Swift

Swift changed the iOS development landscape in 2014 when it replaced Objective C. It is an open-source programming language developed and owned by Apple. It was designed to create apps compatible with iOS, macOS, tvOS, and every Apple-created product.

Swift is endeared because of its adaptability, scalability, and general purpose. It’s easy to learn, expandable, and feature-rich. Today Swift is the go-to option for anyone developing iOS mobile apps.


  • Its syntax is easy to learn since it uses instructions similar to Java and Python.
  • Unlike Objective C, it has fewer lines of code and is not maintenance-heavy
  • It has varieties of features for creating well-designed and high-performance software.
  • For developers, coding is also easy. Tools like fast and intelligent compilation, generics, and type interference, make your development easy, streamlined, and fun.
  • You can scale up applications built on Swift almost effortlessly.


  • It can only work in the Apple ecosystem. Swift can only create iOS mobile applications, not Android apps. Thus, making its use cases very limited.
  • No doubt, Swift, as a language, is easy to learn. But it can take a long time and a harsh learning curve. For aspiring apprenuers, waiting until after learning will delay your startup idea.
  • In such cases, mobile app development outsourcing might be a sure bet to get quality Swift developers.

2. Java

Sun Microsystems developed Java in 1995, and it subsequently became the officially adopted language by Android. It is an object-oriented programming language with syntax similar to C++. It also boasts suitable security protocols, is operable with the internet, and runs on a cross-functional JVM.

Java Virtual Machine (JVM) acts as a gateway on which Java runs. Thus, it ensures that it can code apps for different operating systems – Android and iOS. As a result, Java is the most widely used programming language.


  • Unlike Swift, Java is versatile. It’s functional for creating Android and iOS apps. Although it is mainly used for Android apps
  • It has a great online community, support, and a digital library to solve any problem Java-related problem.
  • It has top-notch security protocols.


  • Java language can be complex, lengthy, and sometimes redundant. It requires writing long lines of code for simple instructions.
  • Java is challenging to learn. Learning the fundamental topics in Java and Android’s Software Development Kit (SDK) can be arduous and frustrating.
  • Java had been criticized for being overloaded, resulting in slow data processing and affecting app speed.

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3. Kotlin

Although existing since 2011, Kotlin was adopted by Google as Java’s replacement for Android in 2019. It runs on the Java Virtual Machine and uses the JVM library. Unlike Java, it has cleaner code, easy to write and learn. As a result, it’s increasingly replacing Java as the go-to Android programming language.

But not just yet. Kotlin can also be combined with Java to build quality, high-performance applications. Plus, it works with compiler infrastructures of JavaScript and LLVM.


  • It removes some redundant features of Java, like null pointer exceptions or putting a semicolon at the end of every line.
  • For beginners, Kotlin is far easier to learn than Java.
  • Kotlin doesn’t require writing a long list of codes. Its language is brief. Thus, cutting on development time.
  • Its syntax is clean and easy to read.
  • Kotlin has less coding, requiring less effort and cost for testing and maintenance.


  • It’s not as mature as Java. You can run into bugs or require massive changes for every update.
  • Experienced and qualified Kotlin developers are rare. So hiring can be difficult.
  • Being a new programming language, Kotlin has few available resources for learning. Java is more readily available.

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4. JavaScript

Few programming languages offer as much versatility, backend dynamism, and frontend GUI as JavaScript. Brendan Eich originally developed it to help reuse already-written codes. Thus, letting developers focus attention on frontend and app design services.

Today, JavaScript’s basic functionality is for client-side scripting of web pages. But other frameworks, like jQuery, ReactNative, Angular, and Vue, have built on JavaScript to provide additional functions. It can help create high-performance apps, websites, web apps, mobile apps, desktop apps, etc.


  • As a programming language for web-based scripting, it’s supported by Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Microsoft Edge, and Safari, amongst other browsers.
  • It’s versatile. It can help build different types of applications, extensive backend, and feature-rich front ends.
  • It boasts a large community of developers where learners can get helpful insight into the language.
  • It’s easy to learn and less dated, unlike most of its peers.


  • Updating JavaScript can be difficult since the language still needs to be compiled.
  • Hiring qualified developers who are experienced and experts in JavaScript is challenging.

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5. React Native

React Native is a cross-platform mobile app development framework built on JavaScript. It helps create cross-platform apps using a single codebase, using the Javascript library known as React. However, it doesn’t target the web but mobile platforms. Apps built with RN can operate on Android, iOS, or other operating systems.

For obvious reasons, React Native is getting increasingly popular. For companies, software development becomes faster and easier. They can share a single codebase for iOS, Android, and web apps, reducing development costs. With these unique features, it’s hardly surprising that Uber, Facebook, and Microsoft are built on React Native.


  • It requires a single codebase. This cuts development time and cost
  • It Provides a wide range of libraries, tools, and communities that facilitate developers’ mobile app development.
  • Its code can be pre-written, sourced, and reused in the future.
  • It requires less management team and maintenance.


  • Its updates are rapid and quickfire. Developers must deal with further updates for every new release, which could be tedious.
  • Mobile apps that require complex user interface functionalities can’t be built with React Native.
  • It could be hard to debug

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Other Programming Languages for App Development

6. Flutter

A well-known alternative to ReactNative that provides cross-functional development. Developed by Google, Flutter is created on the Dart framework.

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7. Objective C

Objective C was designed to provide object-oriented functionalities to the C programming language. It can help build both Android and iOS apps.

Although initially adopted by Apple, it got replaced by Swift in 2014 as Apple’s supported programming language.

8. C++

This is another object-oriented programming language. It’s popular amongst developers for its versatility, longevity, and ease of use. Its powerful features help developers build high-performance apps and video games and detect bugs quickly.

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9. Dart

Dart is a general-purpose and object-oriented programming language created by Google in 2011. It’s functional for server-side, client-side web, and mobile app development. It is also helpful for native apps and cross-platform applications. Flutter uses the Dart programming language to help build mobile applications.


In saner climes, it’s OK to code your app yourself. But the fast-changing market means your app idea may become obsolete before completing your coding Bootcamp. The app business is about hitting the market with your product immediately. Otherwise, some other person will.

That’s why outsourcing provides a better option. Since this article has guided you through the programming language dynamics, you’re better placed to make the right decisions. Contact Emphasoft mobile app development company, discuss your app idea, check out its possibilities, research, and develop a workable strategy.

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